They not only solve existing problems but also create new problems tomorrow. A paradox: it is possible to build and better, and cheaper, but such a proposal is not in demand because of incompetence and mistrust of those responsible for making decisions. Eco-house – a dwelling that meets criteria of 'sustainable development' of civilization, Sustainable development – a development that, on the one hand, hardly used non-renewable sources of energy and matter, and does not harm nature and health person on the other. Passive, or energy-efficient house (English passive house) – this building, the main feature is the low power consumption – about 10% of the energy density per unit volume consumed by the majority modern buildings. Ideally, a passive house should be an independent power system, generally does not require the costs of maintaining a comfortable temperature.
Heating Passive House must occur due to heat, allocated to people living in it people, household appliances, as well as alternative energy sources. Hot water is supplied by installations of renewable energy such as heat pumps or solar collectors. In the Russian language sometimes uses the term "Eco House". Sometimes confused with the definition of "smart house", whose main tasks is to ensure the control of energy efficiency, energy consumption of the building and Automating the control of appliances. Active house, in addition to what little spending power as a passive house, it also produces its own so much that can not only sustain themselves but also to give it to a central network, and most countries it is possible to get money. For example, in Denmark, the developers argue that an active house pay for itself in 30 years.
For the construction of eco-houses are usually chosen environmentally friendly materials, often traditional – wood, stone, brick. In recent years, often build passive houses of the products of recycling inorganic waste – concrete, glass and metal. In Germany, constructed a special reprocessing plants such waste in the construction materials for energy efficient buildings. Passive House technology provides efficient thermal insulation of all enclosing surfaces – not only walls but the floor, ceiling, attic, basement and foundation. In a passive house is formed by several layers of insulation – internal and external. This allows you to not let the heat out of the house and do not let the cold inside of it. It also involves the removal Thermal bridges in building envelopes. As a result, the passive houses heat loss through the enclosing surface does not exceed 15 kW h with a heated area sq ft per year – almost 20 times lower than in conventional buildings. In capital has already built several experimental buildings using the technology of passive houses (house in Nikulino-2). Not so long ago launched a pilot project first ecosettlements near St. Petersburg.